An image outlining the 10 key steps for NIS2 Directive compliance, ensuring EU businesses are well-protected.

The Network & Information System (NIS2) Directive represents a significant shift in the European Union’s approach to bolstering digital infrastructure security, aiming to strengthen the defenses of network and information systems across key sectors. This directive, building upon the foundations laid by the original NIS Directive, introduces more stringent compliance requirements to combat the escalating cyber threats that pose risks to essential societal and economic services. This guide provides a succinct overview for businesses navigating the intricacies of the NIS2 Directive, ensuring readiness and compliance through a structured 10-step process.

What is NIS2?

Adopted on December 14, 2022, as Directive (EU) 2022/2555, the NIS2 Directive embodies a significant advancement in the EU’s cybersecurity efforts. It aims to bolster the resilience and reliability of essential network and information systems against cyber threats, which are integral to daily life and economic stability. By 17 October 2024, EU member states will have to transpose NIS2 into their national legislation. The directive’s development reflects a response to both current and anticipated cybersecurity challenges, emphasizing the vital role these systems play in maintaining societal and economic well-being.

Key Objectives and Broadened Scope

The primary aim of the NIS2 Directive is to reduce the risks posed to entities deemed ‘essential’ and ‘important’ within crucial network and information systems. These systems are pivotal for the smooth functioning of societal and economic activities. The directive seeks innovative and coordinated measures to counter the increasingly frequent, sophisticated, and impactful cyber threats. Notably, the NIS2 Directive widens its purview to include additional sectors, enforcing stringent requirements to achieve a uniformly high level of cybersecurity throughout the EU.

Applicability and Classification of Entities

The NIS2 Directive categorizes entities as either ‘essential’ or ‘important’, considering their significance to the economy and society as well as their size. This classification extends the directive’s applicability to a broader range of sectors critical to key societal functions and economic activities, aiming for a more inclusive coverage than what was provided by the original NIS Directive.

Fines and Sanctions

According to the document, Member States are required to lay down rules on penalties applicable for infringements of the national provisions adopted pursuant to the NIS2 Directive. These penalties must be effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

The NIS2 Directive specifies that administrative fines for non-compliance can be imposed, with maximum amounts set at least EUR 10,000,000 or up to 2% of the total worldwide annual turnover of the preceding financial year for essential entities, and at least EUR 7,000,000 or up to 1.4% of the total worldwide annual turnover for important entities, depending on which is higher. The Directive empowers Member States to decide whether to impose these fines as an alternative or in addition to other types of penalties, such as criminal sanctions, provided that the overall regime of penalties is effective, proportionate and dissuasive.

Steps Toward NIS2 Directive Compliance

To align with the NIS2 Directive and enhance cybersecurity frameworks, businesses could follow a systematic 10-step approach, ensuring compliance and strengthening defenses.

Step 1: Assessing Applicability

Assess whether your company falls within the scope of the sectors outlined by the NIS2 Directive to determine its relevance. Consider the potential impact of operational disruptions on societal and economic stability. For a detailed understanding, refer to our NIS2 Directive Compliance Checklist for Companies, which is intended to assist in determining if your business is impacted.

Step 2: Conducting Risk Assessments

A cornerstone of compliance is the execution of detailed risk assessments. This process entails identifying the vital components of your network and information systems and scrutinizing them for vulnerabilities that could be exploited by cyber threats. Assessing the severity and probability of these risks is crucial for prioritizing security measures. It’s not just about finding weaknesses but understanding their potential impact on your operations and the broader network, guiding a targeted approach to mitigating the most critical threats.

Step 3: Developing Cybersecurity Policies

The foundation of a resilient cybersecurity posture lies in the establishment of robust policies. These policies should encompass critical security domains, including but not limited to, access control mechanisms, data protection protocols and structured incident response strategies. The success of these policies depends on transparent communication and thorough training across the organization, guaranteeing that each member recognizes their part in maintaining cybersecurity standards

Step 4: Implementing Robust Cybersecurity Measures

Achieving NIS2 compliance requires the deployment of both technical and organizational measures, such as firewalls, encryption and access control, supplemented by organizational strategies like employee training and clear communication protocols. Explore our cybersecurity solutions to find the right strategies and tools to enhance your cybersecurity posture.

Step 5: Enhancing Supply Chain Security

The security of your supply chain is integral to your overall cybersecurity health. Evaluating the security practices of your suppliers and ensuring that cybersecurity expectations are explicitly stated in contracts with third-party vendors are essential steps. This not only protects your company but also contributes to the elevation of security standards across your entire supply network.

Step 6: Fostering Cybersecurity Awareness

Building a strong culture of cybersecurity awareness is crucial. Implementing consistent and interactive training programs, along with awareness initiatives, is key to ensuring staff are up-to-date on emerging threats and best practices. Equipping your employees with the necessary understanding and resources to identify and respond to security challenges can greatly reduce vulnerabilities.

Step 7: Establishing Incident Response Plans

Preparedness for potential cybersecurity incidents involves setting up clear, actionable response protocols. These plans should detail the steps to be taken in the event of a breach, including containment, eradication, and recovery processes. Equally important is establishing procedures for notifying the relevant authorities in a timely manner, in accordance with the Directive’s stipulations.

Step 8: Documentation and Reporting

Comprehensive record-keeping is a critical aspect of demonstrating compliance. Detailed documentation of risk assessments, policy updates, training sessions, and incident responses not only serves as evidence of compliance but also as a valuable resource for continuous improvement. Regular compliance reporting, as mandated by the NIS2 Directive, must be integrated into your organizational processes.

Step 9: Regular Review and Updates

The cybersecurity landscape is perpetually evolving, necessitating the ongoing evaluation and refinement of your cybersecurity strategies. This entails regularly revisiting your risk assessments, policies, and defensive measures to ensure they remain effective against emerging threats and align with the latest technological advancements.

Step 10: Engaging with Authorities

Active engagement with national and sector-specific cybersecurity authorities provides valuable insights and guidance. Participation in industry forums and information-sharing platforms facilitates a collaborative approach to cybersecurity, keeping you abreast of regulatory developments, best practices and sector-specific threats.


The NIS2 Directive offers an extensive framework for enhancing EU cybersecurity, addressing the dynamic digital threat landscape. By adhering to the outlined 10-step guide, companies could ensure compliance with the directive, contributing to the EU’s digital infrastructure’s resilience and security and safeguarding critical societal and economic functions against cyber threats.

Navigate the complexities of NIS2 compliance with confidence alongside Nebosystems. Let our seasoned cybersecurity experts lead the way, ensuring your company not only adheres to compliance mandates but also builds a strong cybersecurity infrastructure. Reach out to us now to enhance your defenses and protect your business from the ever-changing cyber threats.

Reference: NIS2 Directive (Directive (EU) 2022/2555). EUR-Lex.